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Beowulf Schleswig

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Beowulf Schleswig

Specialties: Kult-Urgeschichte, Wikinger, Kunsthandwerk Established in Das Ladengeschäft Beowulf - Schleswig entstand zunächst als Ergänzung der. Bilder, die ich vor mehreren Jahren machte während eines Besuchs an den '​Beowulf Laden' in Schleswig, einer Stadt im äußersten Norden Deutschlands. Es schmolz die Klinge des Schwertes, das Beowulf gebraucht hatte, von dem giftigen Blute ihm vor der Hand weg, wie Eis im Frühling. Nur den Griff behielt er​.

Kevin Kiernan, in preparing his electronic edition of the manuscript, used fibre-optic backlighting and ultraviolet lighting to reveal letters in the manuscript lost from binding, erasure, or ink blotting.

The Beowulf manuscript was transcribed from an original by two scribes, one of whom wrote the prose at the beginning of the manuscript and the first lines before breaking off in mid sentence.

The first scribe made a point of carefully regularizing the spelling of the original document by using the common West Saxon language and by avoiding any archaic or dialectical features.

The second scribe, who wrote the remainder, with a difference in handwriting noticeable after line , seems to have written more vigorously and with less interest.

As a result, the second scribe's script retains more archaic dialectic features, which allow modern scholars to ascribe the poem a cultural context.

In the way that it is currently bound, the Beowulf manuscript is followed by the Old English poem Judith. Judith was written by the same scribe that completed Beowulf as evidenced through similar writing style.

Wormholes found in the last leaves of the Beowulf manuscript that are absent in the Judith manuscript suggest that at one point Beowulf ended the volume.

The rubbed appearance of some leaves also suggest that the manuscript stood on a shelf unbound, as is known to have been the case with other Old English manuscripts.

The question of whether Beowulf was passed down through oral tradition prior to its present manuscript form has been the subject of much debate, and involves more than simply the issue of its composition.

Rather, given the implications of the theory of oral-formulaic composition and oral tradition, the question concerns how the poem is to be understood, and what sorts of interpretations are legitimate.

Scholarly discussion about Beowulf in the context of the oral tradition was extremely active throughout the s and s. The debate might be framed starkly as follows: on the one hand, we can hypothesise a poem put together from various tales concerning the hero the Grendel episode, the story of Grendel's mother, and the fire drake narrative.

These fragments would have been told for many years in tradition, and learned by apprenticeship from one generation of illiterate poets to the next.

The poem is composed orally and extemporaneously, and the archive of tradition on which it draws is oral, pagan, Germanic, heroic, and tribal.

On the other hand, one might posit a poem which is composed by a literate scribe, who acquired literacy by way of learning Latin and absorbing Latinate culture and ways of thinking , probably a monk and therefore profoundly Christian in outlook.

On this view, the pagan references would be a sort of decorative archaising. However, scholars such as D. Crowne have proposed the idea that the poem was passed down from reciter to reciter under the theory of oral-formulaic composition , which hypothesises that epic poems were at least to some extent improvised by whoever was reciting them, and only much later written down.

In his landmark work, The Singer of Tales , Albert Lord refers to the work of Francis Peabody Magoun and others, saying "the documentation is complete, thorough, and accurate.

This exhaustive analysis is in itself sufficient to prove that Beowulf was composed orally. Examination of Beowulf and other Old English literature for evidence of oral-formulaic composition has met with mixed response.

While "themes" inherited narrative subunits for representing familiar classes of event, such as the "arming the hero", [55] or the particularly well-studied "hero on the beach" theme [56] do exist across Anglo-Saxon and other Germanic works, some scholars conclude that Anglo-Saxon poetry is a mix of oral-formulaic and literate patterns, arguing that the poems both were composed on a word-by-word basis and followed larger formulae and patterns.

Larry Benson argued that the interpretation of Beowulf as an entirely formulaic work diminishes the ability of the reader to analyse the poem in a unified manner, and with due attention to the poet's creativity.

Instead, he proposed that other pieces of Germanic literature contain "kernels of tradition" from which Beowulf borrows and expands upon.

John Miles Foley wrote, referring to the Beowulf debate, [62] that while comparative work was both necessary and valid, it must be conducted with a view to the particularities of a given tradition; Foley argued with a view to developments of oral traditional theory that do not assume, or depend upon, ultimately unverifiable assumptions about composition, and instead delineate a more fluid continuum of traditionality and textuality.

Finally, in the view of Ursula Schaefer, the question of whether the poem was "oral" or "literate" becomes something of a red herring.

Schaefer's concept of "vocality" offers neither a compromise nor a synthesis of the views which see the poem as on the one hand Germanic, pagan, and oral and on the other Latin-derived, Christian, and literate, but, as stated by Monika Otter: " He made one himself, and had another done by a professional copyist who knew no Anglo-Saxon.

Since that time, however, the manuscript has crumbled further, making these transcripts a prized witness to the text.

While the recovery of at least letters can be attributed to them, their accuracy has been called into question, [c] and the extent to which the manuscript was actually more readable in Thorkelin's time is uncertain.

A great number of translations and adaptations are available, in poetry and prose. Andy Orchard, in A Critical Companion to Beowulf , lists 33 "representative" translations in his bibliography, [69] while the Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies published Marijane Osborn's annotated list of over translations and adaptations in In , the historian Sharon Turner translated selected verses into modern English.

Grundtvig reviewed this edition in and created the first complete verse translation in Danish in Wyatt published the ninth English translation.

In , Francis Barton Gummere 's full translation in "English imitative meter" was published, [72] and was used as the text of Gareth Hinds's graphic novel based on Beowulf in First published in , Frederick Klaeber 's Beowulf and The Fight at Finnsburg [74] which included the poem in Old English , an extensive glossary of Old English terms, and general background information became the "central source used by graduate students for the study of the poem and by scholars and teachers as the basis of their translations.

Seamus Heaney 's translation of the poem referred to by Howell Chickering and many others as "Heaneywulf" [76] was both praised and criticized.

The US publication was commissioned by W. Fulk, of Indiana University , published the first facing-page edition and translation of the entire Nowell Codex manuscript in the Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library series in Following research in the King's College London Archives, Carl Kears proposed that John Porter's translation, published in by Bill Griffiths ' Pirate Press , was the first complete verse translation of the poem entirely accompanied by facing-page Old English.

Translating Beowulf is one of the subjects of the publication Beowulf at Kalamazoo , containing a section with 10 essays on translation, and a section with 22 reviews of Heaney's translation some of which compare Heaney's work with that of Anglo-Saxon scholar Roy Liuzza.

Tolkien 's long-awaited translation edited by his son, Christopher was published in as Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary. It relocates the action to a wealthy community in 20th century America and is told primarily from the point of view of Grendel's mother.

Neither identified sources nor analogues for Beowulf can be definitively proven, but many conjectures have been made. These are important in helping historians understand the Beowulf manuscript, as possible source-texts or influences would suggest time-frames of composition, geographic boundaries within which it could be composed, or range both spatial and temporal of influence i.

There are Scandinavian sources, international folkloric sources, and Celtic sources. But Scandinavian works have continued to be studied as a possible source.

Axel Olrik claimed that on the contrary, this saga was a reworking of Beowulf , and others followed suit.

However, Friedrich Panzer wrote a thesis in which both Beowulf and Grettis saga drew from a common folkloric source, and this encouraged even a detractor such as W.

Lawrence to reposition his view, and entertain the possibility that certain elements in the saga such as the waterfall in place of the mere retained an older form.

The viability of this connection has enjoyed enduring support, and was characterized as one of the few Scandinavian analogues to receive a general consensus of potential connection by Theodore M.

Andersson Another candidate for an analogue or possible source is the story of Hrolf kraki and his servant, the legendary bear- shapeshifter Bodvar Bjarki.

Hrolf kraki, one of the Skjöldungs , even appears as "Hrothulf" in the Anglo-Saxon epic. Hence a story about him and his followers may have developed as early as the 6th century.

Friedrich Panzer wrote a thesis that the first part of Beowulf the Grendel Story incorporated preexisting folktale material, and that the folktale in question was of the Bear's Son Tale Bärensohnmärchen type, which has surviving examples all over the world.

This tale type was later catalogued as international folktale type , now formally entitled "The Three Stolen Princesses" type in Hans Uther's catalogue, although the "Bear's Son" is still used in Beowulf criticism, if not so much in folkloristic circles.

However, although this folkloristic approach was seen as a step in the right direction, "The Bear's Son" tale has later been regarded by many as not a close enough parallel to be a viable choice.

Jorgensen, looking for a more concise frame of reference, coined a "two-troll tradition" that covers both Beowulf and Grettis saga : "a Norse ' ecotype ' in which a hero enters a cave and kills two giants, usually of different sexes"; [93] which has emerged as a more attractive folk tale parallel, according to a assessment by Andersson.

Cook , and others even earlier, [e] [96] [86] [f] Swedish folklorist Carl Wilhelm von Sydow then made a strong argument for the case of parallelism in "The Hand and the Child", because the folktale type demonstrated a "monstrous arm" motif that corresponded with Beowulf wrenching off Grendel's arm.

For no such correspondence could be perceived in the Bear's Son Tale or Grettis saga. In the Mabinogion Teyrnon discovers the otherworldly boy child Pryderi fab Pwyll , the principle character of the cycle, after cutting off the arm of a monstrous beast which is stealing foals from his stables, an episode which is highly reminiscent in its description of the Grendel tale.

Attempts to find classical or Late Latin influence or analogue in Beowulf are almost exclusively linked with Homer 's Odyssey or Virgil 's Aeneid.

In , Albert S. Cook suggested a Homeric connection due to equivalent formulas, metonymies , and analogous voyages.

Work also supported the Homeric influence, stating that encounter between Beowulf and Unferth was parallel to the encounter between Odysseus and Euryalus in Books 7—8 of the Odyssey, even to the point of both characters giving the hero the same gift of a sword upon being proven wrong in their initial assessment of the hero's prowess.

This theory of Homer's influence on Beowulf remained very prevalent in the s, but started to die out in the following decade when a handful of critics stated that the two works were merely "comparative literature", [] although Greek was known in late 7th century England: Bede states that Theodore of Tarsus , a Greek, was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in , and he taught Greek.

Several English scholars and churchmen are described by Bede as being fluent in Greek due to being taught by him; Bede claims to be fluent in Greek himself.

Frederick Klaeber , among others, argued for a connection between Beowulf and Virgil near the start of the 20th century, claiming that the very act of writing a secular epic in a Germanic world represents Virgilian influence.

Virgil was seen as the pinnacle of Latin literature, and Latin was the dominant literary language of England at the time, therefore making Virgilian influence highly likely.

It cannot be denied that Biblical parallels occur in the text, whether seen as a pagan work with "Christian colouring" added by scribes or as a "Christian historical novel, with selected bits of paganism deliberately laid on as 'local colour'," as Margaret E.

Goldsmith did in "The Christian Theme of Beowulf ". There is a wide array of linguistic forms in the Beowulf manuscript.

It is this fact that leads some scholars to believe that Beowulf has endured a long and complicated transmission through all the main dialect areas.

Considerably more than one-third of the total vocabulary is alien from ordinary prose use. There are, in round numbers, three hundred and sixty uncompounded verbs in Beowulf , and forty of them are poetical words in the sense that they are unrecorded or rare in the existing prose writings.

One hundred and fifty more occur with the prefix ge - reckoning a few found only in the past-participle , but of these one hundred occur also as simple verbs, and the prefix is employed to render a shade of meaning which was perfectly known and thoroughly familiar except in the latest Anglo-Saxon period.

The nouns number sixteen hundred. Seven hundred of them, including those formed with prefixes, of which fifty or considerably more than half have ge -, are simple nouns, at the highest reckoning not more than one-quarter is absent in prose.

That this is due in some degree to accident is clear from the character of the words, and from the fact that several reappear and are common after the Norman Conquest.

An Old English poem such as Beowulf is very different from modern poetry. Anglo-Saxon poets typically used alliterative verse , a form of verse in which the first half of the line the a-verse is linked to the second half the b-verse through similarity in initial sound.

This verse form maps stressed and unstressed syllables onto abstract entities known as metrical positions.

The poet has a choice of epithets or formulae to use in order to fulfil the alliteration. When speaking or reading Old English poetry, it is important to remember for alliterative purposes that many of the letters are not pronounced in the same way as in modern English.

Kennings are also a significant technique in Beowulf. They are evocative poetic descriptions of everyday things, often created to fill the alliterative requirements of the metre.

For example, a poet might call the sea the "swan-road" or the "whale-road"; a king might be called a "ring-giver.

The poem also makes extensive use of elided metaphors. Tolkien argued in Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics that the poem is not an epic, and, while no conventional term exactly fits, the nearest would be elegy.

The history of modern Beowulf criticism is often said to begin with J. Tolkien , [] author and Merton professor of Anglo-Saxon at University of Oxford , who in his lecture to the British Academy criticised his contemporaries' excessive interest in its historical implications.

In historical terms, the poem's characters would have been Norse pagans the historical events of the poem took place before the Christianisation of Scandinavia , yet the poem was recorded by Christian Anglo-Saxons who had mostly converted from their native Anglo-Saxon paganism around the 7th century — both Anglo-Saxon paganism and Norse paganism share a common origin as both are forms of Germanic paganism.

Beowulf thus depicts a Germanic warrior society , in which the relationship between the lord of the region and those who served under him was of paramount importance.

In terms of the relationship between characters in Beowulf to God, one might recall the substantial amount of paganism that is present throughout the work.

Literary critics such as Fred C. Robinson argue that the Beowulf poet tries to send a message to readers during the Anglo-Saxon time period regarding the state of Christianity in their own time.

Robinson argues that the intensified religious aspects of the Anglo-Saxon period inherently shape the way in which the poet alludes to paganism as presented in Beowulf.

The poet calls on Anglo-Saxon readers to recognize the imperfect aspects of their supposed Christian lifestyles. In other words, the poet is referencing their "Anglo-Saxon Heathenism.

But one is ultimately left to feel sorry for both men as they are fully detached from supposed "Christian truth" The relationship between the characters of Beowulf , and the overall message of the poet, regarding their relationship with God is debated among readers and literary critics alike.

At the same time, Richard North argues that the Beowulf poet interpreted "Danish myths in Christian form" as the poem would have served as a form of entertainment for a Christian audience , and states: "As yet we are no closer to finding out why the first audience of Beowulf liked to hear stories about people routinely classified as damned.

This question is pressing, given Other scholars disagree, however, as to the meaning and nature of the poem: is it a Christian work set in a Germanic pagan context?

The question suggests that the conversion from the Germanic pagan beliefs to Christian ones was a prolonged and gradual process over several centuries, and it remains unclear the ultimate nature of the poem's message in respect to religious belief at the time it was written.

Robert F. Yeager notes the facts that form the basis for these questions:. That the scribes of Cotton Vitellius A.

XV were Christian beyond doubt, and it is equally sure that Beowulf was composed in a Christianised England since conversion took place in the sixth and seventh centuries.

The poem is set in pagan times, and none of the characters is demonstrably Christian. In fact, when we are told what anyone in the poem believes, we learn that they are pagans.

Beowulf's own beliefs are not expressed explicitly. He offers eloquent prayers to a higher power, addressing himself to the "Father Almighty" or the "Wielder of All.

Or, did the poem's author intend to see Beowulf as a Christian Ur-hero, symbolically refulgent with Christian virtues? The location of the composition of the poem is also intensely disputed.

In , F. Moorman , the first professor of English Language at University of Leeds , claimed that Beowulf was composed in Yorkshire, [] but E.

Talbot Donaldson claims that it was probably composed more than twelve hundred years ago, during the first half of the eighth century, and that the writer was a native of what was then called West Mercia, located in the Western Midlands of England.

However, the late tenth-century manuscript "which alone preserves the poem" originated in the kingdom of the West Saxons — as it is more commonly known.

Stanley B. Greenfield has suggested that references to the human body throughout Beowulf emphasise the relative position of thanes to their lord.

He argues that the term "shoulder-companion" could refer to both a physical arm as well as a thane Aeschere who was very valuable to his lord Hrothgar.

With Aeschere's death, Hrothgar turns to Beowulf as his new "arm. Daniel Podgorski has argued that the work is best understood as an examination of inter-generational vengeance-based conflict, or feuding.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Beawulf. This article is about the epic story. For the character, see Beowulf hero.

For other uses, see Beowulf disambiguation. Old English epic poem. Main article: The dragon Beowulf. Main article: Nowell Codex.

Main article: List of translations and artistic depictions of Beowulf. See also: Bödvar Bjarki. See also: Bear's Son Tale.

Kentish Mercian Northumbrian West Saxon. Anglo-Saxon England portal. Old English sources hinges on the hypothesis that Genesis A predates Beowulf.

Cook pp. He suggested the Irish Feast of Bricriu which is not a folktale as a source for Beowulf —a theory that was soon denied by Oscar Olson.

Liverpool University Press. Retrieved 6 October Collins English Dictionary. The dating of Beowulf. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Beowulf dual-language ed. New York: Doubleday. Comparative Literature. The Heroic Age 5. Didier Erudition.

Retrieved 23 May October History Today. Archived from the original PDF on 23 January Retrieved 1 October Det svenska rikets uppkomst.

Gamla Uppsala, Svenska kulturminnen 59 in Swedish. Bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Retrieved 23 October The Norton Anthology of English Literature vol.

New York: W. Anglo-Saxon England. The Singer of Tales, Volume 1. Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics. Journal of English and Germanic Philology.

The Guardian. Retrieved 20 May Modern Philology. British Library. Retrieved 30 May Andy Orchard". Echte Recherche hätte dagegen bedeutet, sich im Wikingermuseum Haithabu die Beschreibung der dort zu sehenden und als Mjölnir bezeichneten Thorshammer-Amulette anzusehen, ein Gespräch mit der Museumsleitung zu führen oder bei uns nachzufragen, ob man mal kurz einen Blick in die angebotene Fachliteratur werfen dürfe.

So ist das jedenfalls nicht der seriöse Journalismus, der von den SN erwartet wird! Aber zurück zum Anliegen von Prof.

Was sollen wir unwissenden Laien denn nun tun, Herr Professor? Müssen wir jetzt nicht nur unsere Firmennamen ändern, sondern auch unseren gesamten heutigen Sprachgebrauch überprüfen, ob sich darin nicht eventuell schon von den Nazis benutze Begriffe finden, welche der germanischen Mythologie entspringen?

Was machen wir nun beispielsweise mit den Wochentagen, ist es noch erlaubt, den Donnerstag nach dem germanischen Gott Donar zu benennen?

Wer denkt, dass durch Vermeidung von bestimmten Begriffen irgend etwas gegen Nazis untenommen wird, sollte sich auch gegen Schäferhundhaltung oder vegetarische Ernährung engagieren und nicht nur Baufirmen belehren.

Es gäbe noch viele weitere Beispiele, aber keines davon würde diese Welt auch nur ein Stückchen besser machen, deshalb belassen wir es dabei.

Nur leider wird hier durch unsachliche Berichterstattung der SN und einseitige Betrachtung eines vielschichtigen Themas wieder einmal sämtlichen Menschen, welche ein Thorshammer-Amulett tragen oder sich aus religiösen oder kulturellen Gründen mit der germanischen Mythologie befassen, eine Nähe zum Rechtsextremismus unterstellt.

Dezember 7, in Öffnungszeiten von Ralf. Dafür verzichten wir in der Adventszeit auf unsere montäglichen Winterruhetage und haben am Dezember 3, in Allgemein von Martje.

Seit Beginn im Jahr achten wir darauf, für unseren Onlineshop www. Aktuell ist die Zahlung mit Paypal zwar nur über einen Umweg möglich, weil wir das Paypal-Modul gerade reparieren, aber wir sind ansonsten hochmotiviert, Eure Bestellungen zu packen!

November 8, in Öffnungszeiten , Veranstaltungen von Martje. November , ist es wieder soweit: Hier in Schleswig in der A. An diesem Tag gibt es verschiedene Vorträge rund um die Archäologie in dieser Region.

Der Eintritt ist frei. Sehen wir uns auf dem Archäologietag? Noch etwas: Am Dienstag, den Danach geht die Woche normal weiter und wir bloggen auch mal wieder über anderes als Öffnungszeiten.

Laden wieder geöffnet!

Chickering, Howell D. However, Friedrich Panzer wrote a thesis in which both Beowulf and Grettis saga drew from a common folkloric source, and this encouraged even a detractor such as W. Inthe historian Sharon Turner translated selected verses into modern English. There is a wide array of linguistic forms in the Beowulf manuscript. New York: Doubleday. Carrying TorschГјtzenliste Erste Bundesliga hilt of Tipico Formel 1 sword and Grendel's head, he presents them to Hrothgar upon his return to Heorot.

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The rubbed appearance of some leaves also suggest that the manuscript stood on a shelf unbound, as is known to have been the case with other Old English manuscripts.

The question of whether Beowulf was passed down through oral tradition prior to its present manuscript form has been the subject of much debate, and involves more than simply the issue of its composition.

Rather, given the implications of the theory of oral-formulaic composition and oral tradition, the question concerns how the poem is to be understood, and what sorts of interpretations are legitimate.

Scholarly discussion about Beowulf in the context of the oral tradition was extremely active throughout the s and s.

The debate might be framed starkly as follows: on the one hand, we can hypothesise a poem put together from various tales concerning the hero the Grendel episode, the story of Grendel's mother, and the fire drake narrative.

These fragments would have been told for many years in tradition, and learned by apprenticeship from one generation of illiterate poets to the next.

The poem is composed orally and extemporaneously, and the archive of tradition on which it draws is oral, pagan, Germanic, heroic, and tribal.

On the other hand, one might posit a poem which is composed by a literate scribe, who acquired literacy by way of learning Latin and absorbing Latinate culture and ways of thinking , probably a monk and therefore profoundly Christian in outlook.

On this view, the pagan references would be a sort of decorative archaising. However, scholars such as D.

Crowne have proposed the idea that the poem was passed down from reciter to reciter under the theory of oral-formulaic composition , which hypothesises that epic poems were at least to some extent improvised by whoever was reciting them, and only much later written down.

In his landmark work, The Singer of Tales , Albert Lord refers to the work of Francis Peabody Magoun and others, saying "the documentation is complete, thorough, and accurate.

This exhaustive analysis is in itself sufficient to prove that Beowulf was composed orally. Examination of Beowulf and other Old English literature for evidence of oral-formulaic composition has met with mixed response.

While "themes" inherited narrative subunits for representing familiar classes of event, such as the "arming the hero", [55] or the particularly well-studied "hero on the beach" theme [56] do exist across Anglo-Saxon and other Germanic works, some scholars conclude that Anglo-Saxon poetry is a mix of oral-formulaic and literate patterns, arguing that the poems both were composed on a word-by-word basis and followed larger formulae and patterns.

Larry Benson argued that the interpretation of Beowulf as an entirely formulaic work diminishes the ability of the reader to analyse the poem in a unified manner, and with due attention to the poet's creativity.

Instead, he proposed that other pieces of Germanic literature contain "kernels of tradition" from which Beowulf borrows and expands upon.

John Miles Foley wrote, referring to the Beowulf debate, [62] that while comparative work was both necessary and valid, it must be conducted with a view to the particularities of a given tradition; Foley argued with a view to developments of oral traditional theory that do not assume, or depend upon, ultimately unverifiable assumptions about composition, and instead delineate a more fluid continuum of traditionality and textuality.

Finally, in the view of Ursula Schaefer, the question of whether the poem was "oral" or "literate" becomes something of a red herring.

Schaefer's concept of "vocality" offers neither a compromise nor a synthesis of the views which see the poem as on the one hand Germanic, pagan, and oral and on the other Latin-derived, Christian, and literate, but, as stated by Monika Otter: " He made one himself, and had another done by a professional copyist who knew no Anglo-Saxon.

Since that time, however, the manuscript has crumbled further, making these transcripts a prized witness to the text.

While the recovery of at least letters can be attributed to them, their accuracy has been called into question, [c] and the extent to which the manuscript was actually more readable in Thorkelin's time is uncertain.

A great number of translations and adaptations are available, in poetry and prose. Andy Orchard, in A Critical Companion to Beowulf , lists 33 "representative" translations in his bibliography, [69] while the Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies published Marijane Osborn's annotated list of over translations and adaptations in In , the historian Sharon Turner translated selected verses into modern English.

Grundtvig reviewed this edition in and created the first complete verse translation in Danish in Wyatt published the ninth English translation.

In , Francis Barton Gummere 's full translation in "English imitative meter" was published, [72] and was used as the text of Gareth Hinds's graphic novel based on Beowulf in First published in , Frederick Klaeber 's Beowulf and The Fight at Finnsburg [74] which included the poem in Old English , an extensive glossary of Old English terms, and general background information became the "central source used by graduate students for the study of the poem and by scholars and teachers as the basis of their translations.

Seamus Heaney 's translation of the poem referred to by Howell Chickering and many others as "Heaneywulf" [76] was both praised and criticized.

The US publication was commissioned by W. Fulk, of Indiana University , published the first facing-page edition and translation of the entire Nowell Codex manuscript in the Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library series in Following research in the King's College London Archives, Carl Kears proposed that John Porter's translation, published in by Bill Griffiths ' Pirate Press , was the first complete verse translation of the poem entirely accompanied by facing-page Old English.

Translating Beowulf is one of the subjects of the publication Beowulf at Kalamazoo , containing a section with 10 essays on translation, and a section with 22 reviews of Heaney's translation some of which compare Heaney's work with that of Anglo-Saxon scholar Roy Liuzza.

Tolkien 's long-awaited translation edited by his son, Christopher was published in as Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary.

It relocates the action to a wealthy community in 20th century America and is told primarily from the point of view of Grendel's mother.

Neither identified sources nor analogues for Beowulf can be definitively proven, but many conjectures have been made. These are important in helping historians understand the Beowulf manuscript, as possible source-texts or influences would suggest time-frames of composition, geographic boundaries within which it could be composed, or range both spatial and temporal of influence i.

There are Scandinavian sources, international folkloric sources, and Celtic sources. But Scandinavian works have continued to be studied as a possible source.

Axel Olrik claimed that on the contrary, this saga was a reworking of Beowulf , and others followed suit.

However, Friedrich Panzer wrote a thesis in which both Beowulf and Grettis saga drew from a common folkloric source, and this encouraged even a detractor such as W.

Lawrence to reposition his view, and entertain the possibility that certain elements in the saga such as the waterfall in place of the mere retained an older form.

The viability of this connection has enjoyed enduring support, and was characterized as one of the few Scandinavian analogues to receive a general consensus of potential connection by Theodore M.

Andersson Another candidate for an analogue or possible source is the story of Hrolf kraki and his servant, the legendary bear- shapeshifter Bodvar Bjarki.

Hrolf kraki, one of the Skjöldungs , even appears as "Hrothulf" in the Anglo-Saxon epic. Hence a story about him and his followers may have developed as early as the 6th century.

Friedrich Panzer wrote a thesis that the first part of Beowulf the Grendel Story incorporated preexisting folktale material, and that the folktale in question was of the Bear's Son Tale Bärensohnmärchen type, which has surviving examples all over the world.

This tale type was later catalogued as international folktale type , now formally entitled "The Three Stolen Princesses" type in Hans Uther's catalogue, although the "Bear's Son" is still used in Beowulf criticism, if not so much in folkloristic circles.

However, although this folkloristic approach was seen as a step in the right direction, "The Bear's Son" tale has later been regarded by many as not a close enough parallel to be a viable choice.

Jorgensen, looking for a more concise frame of reference, coined a "two-troll tradition" that covers both Beowulf and Grettis saga : "a Norse ' ecotype ' in which a hero enters a cave and kills two giants, usually of different sexes"; [93] which has emerged as a more attractive folk tale parallel, according to a assessment by Andersson.

Cook , and others even earlier, [e] [96] [86] [f] Swedish folklorist Carl Wilhelm von Sydow then made a strong argument for the case of parallelism in "The Hand and the Child", because the folktale type demonstrated a "monstrous arm" motif that corresponded with Beowulf wrenching off Grendel's arm.

For no such correspondence could be perceived in the Bear's Son Tale or Grettis saga. In the Mabinogion Teyrnon discovers the otherworldly boy child Pryderi fab Pwyll , the principle character of the cycle, after cutting off the arm of a monstrous beast which is stealing foals from his stables, an episode which is highly reminiscent in its description of the Grendel tale.

Attempts to find classical or Late Latin influence or analogue in Beowulf are almost exclusively linked with Homer 's Odyssey or Virgil 's Aeneid.

In , Albert S. Cook suggested a Homeric connection due to equivalent formulas, metonymies , and analogous voyages. Work also supported the Homeric influence, stating that encounter between Beowulf and Unferth was parallel to the encounter between Odysseus and Euryalus in Books 7—8 of the Odyssey, even to the point of both characters giving the hero the same gift of a sword upon being proven wrong in their initial assessment of the hero's prowess.

This theory of Homer's influence on Beowulf remained very prevalent in the s, but started to die out in the following decade when a handful of critics stated that the two works were merely "comparative literature", [] although Greek was known in late 7th century England: Bede states that Theodore of Tarsus , a Greek, was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in , and he taught Greek.

Several English scholars and churchmen are described by Bede as being fluent in Greek due to being taught by him; Bede claims to be fluent in Greek himself.

Frederick Klaeber , among others, argued for a connection between Beowulf and Virgil near the start of the 20th century, claiming that the very act of writing a secular epic in a Germanic world represents Virgilian influence.

Virgil was seen as the pinnacle of Latin literature, and Latin was the dominant literary language of England at the time, therefore making Virgilian influence highly likely.

It cannot be denied that Biblical parallels occur in the text, whether seen as a pagan work with "Christian colouring" added by scribes or as a "Christian historical novel, with selected bits of paganism deliberately laid on as 'local colour'," as Margaret E.

Goldsmith did in "The Christian Theme of Beowulf ". There is a wide array of linguistic forms in the Beowulf manuscript.

It is this fact that leads some scholars to believe that Beowulf has endured a long and complicated transmission through all the main dialect areas.

Considerably more than one-third of the total vocabulary is alien from ordinary prose use. There are, in round numbers, three hundred and sixty uncompounded verbs in Beowulf , and forty of them are poetical words in the sense that they are unrecorded or rare in the existing prose writings.

One hundred and fifty more occur with the prefix ge - reckoning a few found only in the past-participle , but of these one hundred occur also as simple verbs, and the prefix is employed to render a shade of meaning which was perfectly known and thoroughly familiar except in the latest Anglo-Saxon period.

The nouns number sixteen hundred. Seven hundred of them, including those formed with prefixes, of which fifty or considerably more than half have ge -, are simple nouns, at the highest reckoning not more than one-quarter is absent in prose.

That this is due in some degree to accident is clear from the character of the words, and from the fact that several reappear and are common after the Norman Conquest.

An Old English poem such as Beowulf is very different from modern poetry. Anglo-Saxon poets typically used alliterative verse , a form of verse in which the first half of the line the a-verse is linked to the second half the b-verse through similarity in initial sound.

This verse form maps stressed and unstressed syllables onto abstract entities known as metrical positions. The poet has a choice of epithets or formulae to use in order to fulfil the alliteration.

When speaking or reading Old English poetry, it is important to remember for alliterative purposes that many of the letters are not pronounced in the same way as in modern English.

Kennings are also a significant technique in Beowulf. They are evocative poetic descriptions of everyday things, often created to fill the alliterative requirements of the metre.

For example, a poet might call the sea the "swan-road" or the "whale-road"; a king might be called a "ring-giver.

The poem also makes extensive use of elided metaphors. Tolkien argued in Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics that the poem is not an epic, and, while no conventional term exactly fits, the nearest would be elegy.

The history of modern Beowulf criticism is often said to begin with J. Tolkien , [] author and Merton professor of Anglo-Saxon at University of Oxford , who in his lecture to the British Academy criticised his contemporaries' excessive interest in its historical implications.

In historical terms, the poem's characters would have been Norse pagans the historical events of the poem took place before the Christianisation of Scandinavia , yet the poem was recorded by Christian Anglo-Saxons who had mostly converted from their native Anglo-Saxon paganism around the 7th century — both Anglo-Saxon paganism and Norse paganism share a common origin as both are forms of Germanic paganism.

Beowulf thus depicts a Germanic warrior society , in which the relationship between the lord of the region and those who served under him was of paramount importance.

In terms of the relationship between characters in Beowulf to God, one might recall the substantial amount of paganism that is present throughout the work.

Literary critics such as Fred C. Robinson argue that the Beowulf poet tries to send a message to readers during the Anglo-Saxon time period regarding the state of Christianity in their own time.

Robinson argues that the intensified religious aspects of the Anglo-Saxon period inherently shape the way in which the poet alludes to paganism as presented in Beowulf.

The poet calls on Anglo-Saxon readers to recognize the imperfect aspects of their supposed Christian lifestyles.

In other words, the poet is referencing their "Anglo-Saxon Heathenism. But one is ultimately left to feel sorry for both men as they are fully detached from supposed "Christian truth" The relationship between the characters of Beowulf , and the overall message of the poet, regarding their relationship with God is debated among readers and literary critics alike.

At the same time, Richard North argues that the Beowulf poet interpreted "Danish myths in Christian form" as the poem would have served as a form of entertainment for a Christian audience , and states: "As yet we are no closer to finding out why the first audience of Beowulf liked to hear stories about people routinely classified as damned.

This question is pressing, given Other scholars disagree, however, as to the meaning and nature of the poem: is it a Christian work set in a Germanic pagan context?

The question suggests that the conversion from the Germanic pagan beliefs to Christian ones was a prolonged and gradual process over several centuries, and it remains unclear the ultimate nature of the poem's message in respect to religious belief at the time it was written.

Robert F. Yeager notes the facts that form the basis for these questions:. That the scribes of Cotton Vitellius A. XV were Christian beyond doubt, and it is equally sure that Beowulf was composed in a Christianised England since conversion took place in the sixth and seventh centuries.

The poem is set in pagan times, and none of the characters is demonstrably Christian. In fact, when we are told what anyone in the poem believes, we learn that they are pagans.

Beowulf's own beliefs are not expressed explicitly. He offers eloquent prayers to a higher power, addressing himself to the "Father Almighty" or the "Wielder of All.

Or, did the poem's author intend to see Beowulf as a Christian Ur-hero, symbolically refulgent with Christian virtues? The location of the composition of the poem is also intensely disputed.

In , F. Moorman , the first professor of English Language at University of Leeds , claimed that Beowulf was composed in Yorkshire, [] but E.

Talbot Donaldson claims that it was probably composed more than twelve hundred years ago, during the first half of the eighth century, and that the writer was a native of what was then called West Mercia, located in the Western Midlands of England.

However, the late tenth-century manuscript "which alone preserves the poem" originated in the kingdom of the West Saxons — as it is more commonly known.

Stanley B. Greenfield has suggested that references to the human body throughout Beowulf emphasise the relative position of thanes to their lord.

He argues that the term "shoulder-companion" could refer to both a physical arm as well as a thane Aeschere who was very valuable to his lord Hrothgar.

With Aeschere's death, Hrothgar turns to Beowulf as his new "arm. Daniel Podgorski has argued that the work is best understood as an examination of inter-generational vengeance-based conflict, or feuding.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Beawulf. This article is about the epic story. For the character, see Beowulf hero.

For other uses, see Beowulf disambiguation. Old English epic poem. Main article: The dragon Beowulf. Main article: Nowell Codex.

Main article: List of translations and artistic depictions of Beowulf. See also: Bödvar Bjarki.

See also: Bear's Son Tale. Kentish Mercian Northumbrian West Saxon. Anglo-Saxon England portal. Old English sources hinges on the hypothesis that Genesis A predates Beowulf.

Cook pp. He suggested the Irish Feast of Bricriu which is not a folktale as a source for Beowulf —a theory that was soon denied by Oscar Olson.

Liverpool University Press. Retrieved 6 October Collins English Dictionary. The dating of Beowulf. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Beowulf dual-language ed. New York: Doubleday. Comparative Literature. The Heroic Age 5. Didier Erudition.

Retrieved 23 May October History Today. Archived from the original PDF on 23 January Retrieved 1 October Det svenska rikets uppkomst.

Gamla Uppsala, Svenska kulturminnen 59 in Swedish. Bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Retrieved 23 October The Norton Anthology of English Literature vol.

New York: W. Anglo-Saxon England. The Singer of Tales, Volume 1. Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics. Journal of English and Germanic Philology.

The Guardian. Retrieved 20 May Modern Philology. British Library. Retrieved 30 May Andy Orchard".

Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript 1 ed. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. U of Kentucky. Retrieved 19 November Beowulf: Revised Edition.

Manchester: Manchester University Press. Retrieved 14 September Anglo-Latin literature, — Am Durch ein Lichtband, das vom Erd- bis über das Staffelgeschoss leuchtet, wird er auch nachts zum neuen Wahrzeichen der Stadt.

Der professorale Vorwurf an Manke lautete, dass dieser Begriff nun überhaupt nicht in unsere Zeit passe, diese Namensgebung unpassend sein und auf rechtsextreme Immobilienkäufer abziele.

Die Firma Manke beruft sich daraufhin auf Unwissenheit, will den Begriff aus ihrer Projektbeschreibung streichen und versichert, dass politische Hintergründe ganz bestimmt keine Rolle gespielt hätten.

Echte Recherche hätte dagegen bedeutet, sich im Wikingermuseum Haithabu die Beschreibung der dort zu sehenden und als Mjölnir bezeichneten Thorshammer-Amulette anzusehen, ein Gespräch mit der Museumsleitung zu führen oder bei uns nachzufragen, ob man mal kurz einen Blick in die angebotene Fachliteratur werfen dürfe.

So ist das jedenfalls nicht der seriöse Journalismus, der von den SN erwartet wird! Aber zurück zum Anliegen von Prof.

Was sollen wir unwissenden Laien denn nun tun, Herr Professor? Müssen wir jetzt nicht nur unsere Firmennamen ändern, sondern auch unseren gesamten heutigen Sprachgebrauch überprüfen, ob sich darin nicht eventuell schon von den Nazis benutze Begriffe finden, welche der germanischen Mythologie entspringen?

Was machen wir nun beispielsweise mit den Wochentagen, ist es noch erlaubt, den Donnerstag nach dem germanischen Gott Donar zu benennen?

Wer denkt, dass durch Vermeidung von bestimmten Begriffen irgend etwas gegen Nazis untenommen wird, sollte sich auch gegen Schäferhundhaltung oder vegetarische Ernährung engagieren und nicht nur Baufirmen belehren.

Es gäbe noch viele weitere Beispiele, aber keines davon würde diese Welt auch nur ein Stückchen besser machen, deshalb belassen wir es dabei.

Nur leider wird hier durch unsachliche Berichterstattung der SN und einseitige Betrachtung eines vielschichtigen Themas wieder einmal sämtlichen Menschen, welche ein Thorshammer-Amulett tragen oder sich aus religiösen oder kulturellen Gründen mit der germanischen Mythologie befassen, eine Nähe zum Rechtsextremismus unterstellt.

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